Yurok Nomad History:

Understanding the peoples that developed the dogs called Yoruk or Boz in the Taurus mountain range will help you understand the dog.

Excerpted from http://www.allaboutturkey.com/nomad.htm

"Throughout the coastal region of Turkey you will come across groups of nomadic herders, the yörüks, who in the winter come down to the pastures by the coast and in the summer, when the sun shrivels the vegetation on the coast, travel up into the mountains to the yaylas, the high mountain plateaus and valleys where there is sufficient grass and fodder for the animals until the autumn rains again regenerate the pastures on the coast. In Lycia you will see a few of the traditional black goat-hair tents, usually covered in plastic sheets nowadays, of the truly nomadic yörüks, though many now have more permanent houses on the coast and in the mountains. In other parts of Turkey there are larger numbers of these nomads, who carry everything with them on donkeys and camels along with their flocks of sheep and goats. To control the large flocks of sheep and guard their property, a large breed of dog is employed and these animals can be ferocious beasts, keep well clear of them. They are usually bred in the East to take on the wolves that used to, and sometimes still do, attack the flocks, and these large dogs could successfully and will take on a wolf. Though the life of the yörüks is becoming less nomadic in modern Turkey and they are losing many of their traditions, they still make superb kilims with patterns and colors particular to the clan and region they belong to. The dress of these nomadic herdsmen has changed and though you still see some in the black shaggy goats-hair capes, more and more have adopted western style dress. The women more traditionally wear the 'salvar', the baggy trousers and short jacket, usually in a floral material, and on their heads a scarf cleverly arranged and knotted so it looks almost like a hat. The Yörüks are not gypsies as is sometimes suggested. Their origins are probably from the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and it is likely they were here before the Turcoman tribes migrated down from the North. They do not wander the length and breadth of Turkey, but have definite routes and areas in the lowlands and highlands bordering the coast. They are a proud people who have to some extent been left behind in rapidly modernizing Turkey and their traditional routes and rights would appear to have been overlooked as roads are cut through the country and property is snapped up by developers."

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Excerpted from http://www.polosbastards.com/artman/publish/Ararat.shtml to show a traveler's experience visiting with a tribe of Turkish Nomads and their dogs.

"Over the last few centuries, within the Celali community, a large proportion of the people have adopted and established a semi-nomadic lifestyle around the slopes of the biblical Mountain. Originally intended as a means of defense against incursion and subsequent assimilation from other cultures, the migration to the higher slopes was also found to be useful as it allowed the shepherds to escape the uncomfortable heat of mid-summer and find respite in the cooler mountain air. Now the threat of cultural "pollution" is of less concern, the shepherding families spend only the hot summer months at altitude on the summer pasture, referred to in Kurmanji as the "yayala", and return to the relative comfort and safety of low-lying villages from October through till the end of May.  Generally speaking though, each nomadic family keeps themselves to themselves and rarely interacts with outsiders, including other camps that may be only a few hundred meters away on the mountainside.

I decide to take a walk around the camp and excuse myself politely from the communal tent. In the company of Nuri, one of the older boys, and the two girls Elif and Derya, I run the gauntlet of the camp's dogs. There are four dogs for me to avoid: Big grizzly beasts that offer no brook, invite no quarrel and command a wide berth at all times. They are an absolute necessity for keeping wolves and bears at bay during the night and there is no question they earn their keep on a regular basis, as I am to discover that night. During the daytime they laze around the camp, often sleeping, often bickering. If they get too unruly they are dealt with swiftly and harshly with a stout stick or large rock but this is rarely, if ever, done without good reason and a tight working relationship between nomad and hound is maintained at all times. All the same, I am a perfect stranger and the dogs don't recognise my smell. If I wander too far from camp and am confronted by one or more of these animals, chances are I'll be torn to shreds; I know it, and it’s hard not to believe the dogs haven't figured it out too.

I wrongly assume that the day's activity and the copious fresh air will instigate a good night's sleep, but whereas the evening on the mountain had been quiet and peaceful, so the night is full of sound: To my side Nuri's heavy breathing indicates that he has dropped off straight away. From the sheep pen, the persistent coughing of a bronchial ewe has a distinctly human quality and I can't help but smile. From further afield a nightjar begins to "churr", the noise drifting on the air, monotone and persistent. A donkey brays, just to make sure I'm fully awake, and the dogs wander around the camp yapping at anything and everything, knowing that now they're in charge.

At two thirty a.m. wolves are in the area. One of the camp's dogs is just on the other side of the stonewall, barely a few feet from my head, and if I had fallen asleep I'm most certainly wide-awake now: All four dogs start barking together and then the dog near to me ceases and dashes to intercept the night raid. There's no stealth in his movement and I hear his heavy feet drumming the ground as he races out of camp. From a distance I hear the same dog start barking again and the noise is maintained for a further ten minutes until the opportunist visitors have fled.

At about four o'clock dawn breaks and in the absence of a cockerel, the donkey self-appoints the role of alarm clock. The noise rips me out of the precious little sleep I had attained and, defeated, I decide to get up and take a few pictures of the sleeping camp. Outside I see Hanim is already in the sheep pen, checking on the livestock. A quick headcount and she is reassured that the wolves were unsuccessful; the dogs have earned their keep for another night. I smile at her and indicate that I'm going for a climb with the camera and she nods and mutters something I don't understand. When I'm about a hundred meters from camp and climbing, the dogs spot me and give chase. Apart from Hanim the whole camp is asleep. My mind races; I have about 15 seconds to assess the situation and act ,knowing that my life could depend on it. I look for a sizeable rock to arm myself with but everything is either too large or too small and the dogs are almost on me. In the nick of time I seize a suitable projectile and hold it aloft as I stand with my back to a large outcrop to prevent myself from being surrounded. The dogs face me, barking and snarling, but keep a safe distance and I wonder how long I can hold this defense.  But Hanim is alert to the situation and is on her way, bounding up the stony mountainside to rescue me from the seething hounds. She covers the distance in a fraction of the time it had taken me and cuts a formidable figure as she hurls a rock at the nearest dog. I'm forgotten as they drop their tails and try to avoid their hissing and cussing master. As the dogs run obediently back to camp Hanim ushers me on my way and turns to follow them, forgetting me just as quickly.

When two of the boys lead the sheep from the pen and towards me for the day's pasture, I take the opportunity to return amidst the activity and elude the dogs and another confrontation.

There is much to do in the camp today, as more sheep are being herded up the mountain to join the already-large flock. Before they arrive, the sheep that are already here need to be shorn. Memet and Derya's mother, Naide will take care of that and will start as soon as the children are fed.

I join the group in the sheep pen and photograph them while they work. It's an unhurried affair punctuated by frequent tea breaks and it's not until late morning that Memet pins down the last sheep and relieves it of its woolly coat, using a lethal looking pair of 18 inch shearing blades. The girls are on hand to bag up the wool and finish off by sweeping up the sheep pellets with a small brush."

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Excerpted from http://www.kurdishcentre.org/kurds/kurdish_race.html to show historical reference to Nomad History and their dogs.

"The earliest evidence thus far of a unified and distinct culture shared by the people inhabiting the Kurdish mountains relates to the period of the 'Halaf Culture' which emerged about 8000) years ago. The Zagros mountains were the site of perennial population surplus and pressure from 12000 to 5000 years ago, which must have resulted in numerous episodes of emigration. This population pressure in the Zabros-Taurus folds was a consequence of successive technological advances in domestication of common crops and animals and resulted in a prosperous agricultural economy and trade; therefore high population density. The Halafian phenomenon is likely the result of a massive internal migration that succeeded in culturally unifying the population.

The fact that Halaf culture spread so rapidly over such a considerable distance across the rugged Kurdish mountains is thought to have been the result of the development of a new life style and economic activity necessitating mobility, namely nomadic herding. All of the pre-requisite technologies had been developed, and essential animals, particularly the dog, had been domesticated by settled agriculturalists. Halafian figures of dogs (ca. 6000 BC) with upcurled tails unlike that of any specie of wolf, were unearthed in Jarmo in central Kurdistan. They provide the earliest definitive evidence of the development of man's "best friend" and the herder's most prized protection. Nomadic herding has since been a very mobile cornerstone of Zagros-Taurus cultures and societies.

By approximately 4300 BC, a new culture, and possibly a new people, came to dominate the mountains: the Hurrians. Of the Hurrians we know much more, and the volume of our knowledge becomes greaterwith time. We know, for example, that the Hurrians spread far and wide into the Zagros-Taurus mountain systems and intruded for a time on the neighboring plains of Mesopotamia and the Iranian Plateau. However, they never expanded far from the mountains. Their economy was surprisingly integrated and focused, alongwith their political bonds, which ran generally parallel to the Zagros-Taurus mountains rather than radiating out to the lowlands, as was the case during the preceding Ubaid cultural period. Mountainplain economic exchanges remained secondaryin importance, judging by the archaeological remains of goods and their origins.

Culturally, Aryan nomads brought very little to add to what they found already present in the Zagros-Taurus region . As has always been the case, cultural sophistication and civilization are almost never associated with a nomadic way of life. In fact, nomads are traditionally thought to be destroyers of sedentary cultures, potential mortal adversaries in the struggle for pos- session of land and political dominance.

What and who they are today: heirs to millenia of cultural and genetic evolution of the native inhabitants of the Zagros-Taurus systems."

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Excerpted from http://www.selenasol.com/selena/struggle/kurds.html to show the history of agriculture and domestication of the dog in the area.

"Archaeological finds continue to document that some of mankind's earliest steps towards development of agricultural. domestication of many common farm animals(sheep, goats, hogs and dogs). record keeping (the token system), development of domestic technologies (weaving, fired pottery making and glazing), metallurgy and urbanization took place in Kurdistan, dating back between 12,000 and 8.000 years ago. The earliest evidence so far of a unified and distinct culture (and possibly, ethnicity) by people inhabiting the Kurdish mountains dates back to the Halaf culture of 8,000-7,400 years ago.  The Hurrian period lasted from 6,300 to about 2,600 years ago. Much more is known of the Hurrians.  The Hurrians spread far and wide, dominating much territory outside their Zagros-Taurus mountain base."

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Excerpted from http://www.todayszaman.com/newsDetail_getNewsById.action;jsessionid=955D609EB47A6D9D995252270AFB632A?newsId=219764, an article entitled "Tired of nomadic life, yoruks willinhg to change lifestyle, put down roots", published by Today's Zaman, Istanbul, August 23, 2010.

"Members of the Sarikeçililer yörük clan, one of the few remaining groups of nomads in Anatolia, say they are willing to settle in one place if they are offered land on which they can breed animals. The term “yörük” refers to nomadic Turks in Anatolia. The Sarikeçililer (those with yellow goats) continue to keep this 1,000-year-old culture alive, though their numbers have diminished significantly as many have begun to abandon their itinerant lifestyle.

“We are tired of being nomads. Our children no longer wish to maintain our lifestyle. We have relatives who have settled in the cities. We came to realize the difficulty of our life when we visit them. Our children want to attend school, they want TVs and computers. We are no longer able to persuade them [to remain nomads],” Sarikeçililer Association President Halil Öksüzoglu told the Anatolia news agency.

Noting that they have asked the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement to help them adopt a settled life, he said their request was welcomed. Stating that 140 families asked to be settled, he said 100 applications have been approved so far. “A commission will be set up and they will show us our places. We have never before been this close to settling down,” he added.

The number of families that maintain the nomadic tradition has decreased recently, he said. While there were thousands of obas -- nomad camping sites -- in the past, there are only some 150 today, he added.

The Sarikeçililer spend six months of the year along the coast, three months on the road and three months in the highlands. The plateaus of the Taurus range, reaching a maximum height of 3,000 meters, offer rich pasturage. Nomadic stockbreeding has both cultural and economic importance for the yörük people. Migration is a must for stockbreeding in the Mediterranean region due to the climate and topographic features and each year they cover long distances, as stockbreeding is, along with weaving, their livelihood.

During the winter these nomads come down to breed their stock along the coast or in the coastal plains where the climate is mild. In some places they pay a fee to villagers for stockbreeding there. The nomads wait for the warmer season in their tents made of goat hair and then begin their migration to the highlands in late April or early May.

The yörük clans travel over long distances; it might take as little as a week to move from the highlands to the coastal areas or vice versa or as long as a month, yet this cycle of migration is maintained by the few remaining unsettled nomads."

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Excerpted from http://www.nomadplace.com/yoruk/Musa-Article-Yoruks.htm, an article about Turkey's 450,000 Yoruk Nomads, Written by Musa Seyirci, Antalya Cultural Office Director

"Today the Yörük nomads are confined mainly to the Toros Mountains, with their mist shrouded peaks and vast high pastures.A people passionately devoted to their freedom, the Yörük are like birds of passage. Until the early 19th century thousands of Yörük nomads lived in the Ottoman territories of the Balkans and throughout western, southern and southeastern Anatolia. They spent the summer on the high pastures, autumn at lower altitudes, and the winter months in sheltered encampments with their flocks and herds.

These wandering pastoral communities began to settle on the land in Ottoman times, and this process gained momentum under the Turkish Republic. Both men and women were excellent horsemen and brave fighters, which meant that in Ottoman times the Yörüks were sent to the frontiers of the empire, particularly the Balkans.

Under the Ottomans, however, the Yörüks resisted permanent settlement, which they only accepted with the reduction of their pastures during the 20th century. Today most Yörük communities live permanently in their winter villages, so the sight of Yörük tents on the high pastures in summer is becoming increasingly rare. Yet there will always be a few Yörüks who continue to make the annual migration into the Toros Mountains, drawn by the lush grazing, fresh mountain air, ice cold spring water, and above all by the freedom of mountain life.

During the summer months in the mountains milk from the sheep and goats is used to make butter and cheese, which are taken to sell in the market along with wool and surplus livestock. The womenfolk also busy themselves with weaving and embroidery over the summer. When the weather begins to cool, the Yörüks descend further down the mountains to the autumn camps, where they make butter and cheese for their own use during the winter months. After spending the summer and autumn under the shade of the junipers, the shepherds protected from the cool of the night by their felt cloaks, it is time to set out for their winter villages. In early November frost ices the grass of the high meadows and snow begins to blanket the peaks. The winter villages are usually situated on the coastal plains, where the weather is mild and there is plenty of rich winter grazing and firewood. Not until May will they head for the mountains again.

Their felt tents known as karaçadir or alaçik and made of goat’s hair, were in the past the only homes of this pastoral people. The interiors are decorated with brightly coloured

carpets, kilims and felt rugs woven by the women in traditional patterns. Amongst the Yörüks it is the women who milk the sheep, weave kilims and carpets and bake the bread. It is they who clean, comb and spin the sheared wool, dye the yarn and and transform it into textiles adorned with a thousand and one colourful motifs. The men, meanwhile, are responsible for guarding homes and livestock, and going to market.

Yörük cuisine is based primarily on meat and dairy products. The markets set up near the high pastures play an important social as well as economic role. Here friends and relatives from other Yörük communities find the chance to meet in the course of selling their produce and making their purchases. Since Yörüks are always on the move in such of fresh pastures, they have no permanent address, so usually give that of a merchant they know in the town for receiving letters from sons doing their military service and from friends.At the end of April when the temperature on the plains begins to rise, busy preparations begin in the Yörük encampments for the migration into the mountains. As the grass dries brown in the heat and the flies multiply, the sheep, goats, camels and cows become restless on the plains. If the Yörüks do not migrate when the animals expect, the older animals take their place at the head of the herds and attempt to lead them up into the mountains in search of green grass and cool temperatures.

With the date of departure set, the level of activity mounts to a climax. The saddles of camels, donkeys and horses and the bells of the sheep and goats are brought out for cleaning and repairs. Clothes are washed, and leavened bread is baked in readiness for the journey. On the morning of departure, the children and young people put on new bright coloured clothes. The young men are at their smartest, with their moustaches twirled, shawls wound around their waists, and their rifles and pipes slung on their backs.

The patterned sacks, tents and other equipment are loaded onto the camels and covered over by large colourful kilims so that the animals look as decorative as a bride. In the early morning the cavalcade sets out at last, the sound of pipes mingling with the tinkling of bells. The trains of animals progressing in single file is an unforgettable sight. The journey to the nearest high pastures takes about seven days, and to those further away can take as long as fifteen days to a month. The migration of the Yörük nomads is an ancient part of their culture, with its own unique traditions.

Communities of Honamli, Karakoyunlu, Gebizli and Hayta Yörüks still spend the summer on the high pasture of Anamas Yayla between Isparta and Konya, and the Yeniosmanli Yörüks at Söbüce Yayla between Antalya and Burdur. Apart from a small number of Yörüks belonging to the Sarikeçeli and Bahsis tribes, most of the Yörüks now live a settled life. But those who do persist in their nomadic tradition do not show any inclination to give it up, so hopefully we will be able to enjoy the sight of the Yörük nomads winding their way up to the pastures at 1500 to 3000 metres and galloping their horses at liberty in the mountains for many years to come."

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Excerpted from http://mutluyuz.piczo.com/yorukler?cr=4&linkvar=000044, showing that one of the original tribes of the Yoruk were called the BOZOKLAR and referred to as Boz.

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Yoruk Nomad History

ll. After a century, many immigrants to the west continues the traditions of the Oghuz Turks and the Turkish languages, south-west arm of the Muslim-connected language (Turkmen) is called the Turkmen-speaking public. Also referred to as nomad nomadic Turkmens in Anatolia.

At the end of nearly two centuries of migration westward Oghuz Turkmen have adopted the name. Plays an important role in the establishment of the Great Seljuk Empire at the end to not provide compliance with the Turkmen regions nationalization process has contributed to the emigration of Anatolia Turkish.

An important part of continuing the traditional lifestyle of Turkmen Seljuk turning their backs against the rule of the former kandas a constant opposition to equality, in places, formed the source of the riots.

Some of the Turkmens fleeing the Mongol invasion in the south took refuge in Syria, descending the Mamelukes, did not cut ties with Anatolia and Syria have taken yaylak winter quarters in Central Anatolia. With the Mongol invasion of Anatolia became the new Turkmen. Establishing the various principalities of the Ottoman Empire in the West Turkmen have played a role in establishing.  Yörükler Yürük, also known as Anatolia and Rumelia Türkmen'lerdir nomadic animal husbandry, who preferred the nomadic life of Turkmen communities who migrated from Central Asia to Anatolia, and only bringing sheep, probably 13 century was known as a nomad. The Sultanate of them formed a small military squadrons. An important part of the Ottoman Rumelia and Anatolia during the nomads were moved. Fatih Kanunnamesi'nde Yörükler, according to some tax immunity recognized reayaya. These privileges are to be prevented reaya nomads, some of the prohibitions or limitations prevented mixing between reaya Yörükler. They are nomads Kanunnamesi'nde Fatih Agna official incumbency, given where the physical and military obligations. Yörüks çeribasilar beratli ruled by the Divan-i Humayun.

Kadilarinin places where they uygulardi çeribasilar penalties. How much can remain where they pass nomads, which means use, areas of pasture and winter quarters were identified. Jalali Anatolia Riots, civil unrest and economic crises that followed the uprising led to a deterioration of order nomads in Anatolia. However, forms of life to some extent protected the ancient nomadic shepherds. Today, most Taurus nomads, some also live in western Anatolia. These, as well as animal rugs, kilims, handicrafts and agriculture, blacksmithing, etc. are involved, most Alevis.

I.Bayezid (Lightning), and II. Mehmed II (Fatih), which is settled in the Balkans during the nomads of Thrace, Bulgaria and Serbia to the west of Istanbul, the Danube coast, Bender (Bender) and Akkerman'a (Belgorod-Dnestrovski today, Ukraine), a military order in an area large enough to lived in. Fatih Kanunnamesi, organized as a separate class of them, the oldest document, Roumelia lifestyles and military obligations. According to where they are connected to the Rumeli adlandirilirlardi nomads. These forms of 30 people stoves, each stove eskinci five people (actually to time), and the remaining 25 people was considered stooge. Those stooge when Sefer, eskincilere of 50 cents during each time gives bac (hence yamaklara "Chinatown" is also known as.), But the taxes ödemezlerdi wanderer type. A nomad in each region of the brain (mir-i yörükan) of patients. They would gather under the banner of Beylerbeyi Rumeli zeamat take eskincilerini when sahibiydi.Sefer. Different degrees of nomad chieftains peace and happiness. Nomads of Rumelia Rumelia Province olustururlardi a separate starboard.

Rumeli Yörüklerinin 17 began to deteriorate towards the end of a century. These child-I Fatiha (Rumeli conquerors children, the name given to those placed later in Rumelia, Konyar) discipline by making purchases in the long run did not give a positive result. nomads in an edict dated l845 military order was terminated. Today Ograzden daglarininin the southern outskirts of the Balkans (Macedonia-Greece-Bulgaria triangle) Rumeli nomads of animal husbandry traditions, languages ??and keep their economic structures.

Source: Britannica

Yörükler Turkmen nomadic animal husbandry. Most goats, sheep, cattle and camels from animals that feed their crops and livelihoods they provide. Nomads have no place in a certain fixed layout. But the animals cool during the summer to find plenty of pasture grass and water, called places, the climate is more temperate in the winter they migrate to places called winter quarters. This migration of nomads carries a separate meaning, becomes a source of great joy and happiness, are made on special occasions. Nomads living in the Antalya region in late October, the cool, juicy and grassy pastures which migrate in Denver. The most important of Yaylaklarin Seydisehir, Beysehir, Egirdir, Korkuteli, high plateaus, such as Apple and the Bey Mountains. Yörükler sit in tents made of hair. Inside the tents of felt, rugs, carpets, saddlebags and furnish the items as they weaved their own.

Nomads living in the Antalya region built to be implemented for various reasons, and since the time of the Ottoman Empire tried to be kept under control. In this he achieved complete success.

veya oldugunu ifade etmek için de kullanilmistir."Yörümek 'walk' jig, the name derived from the nomadic, or semi-nomadic villages settled by establishing the state as well as for the Turkmen, nomadic Turkmens and they were also used to express that <Göçer> or <yörük>. Fasting on Bey, nomad nomads for nomads, Oguz crew goes statements. kelimesine rastlanmaktadir."Conqueror and legal transfer of the <yörük> kanunnamelerinde word encountered. How you express promise of nomad nomad Oguz Turks, there is only for Anatolia and Rumelia. The other Turkish countries, this word is unknown. Indeed Kaskarli Mahmut Oguz göçebelerine 'Turkmen' he says. Ottoman documents, Aleppo and Damascus and Turkmens, also known mention of Aleppo and Damascus and nomads. Also coming to Turkey Bulgarians, Turks, nomadic ones called the Nomad. Between Akseki Hadim with Taurus, which has the etiquette of the Turkish-speaking and Turkish Kurds are nomads. Göçebelerini Seljuk and Ottoman Turks tried to place the soil in a systematic way. For this purpose, grooming, and benefited from the fief system. And during the reign of Orhan Gazi Yildirim Beyazit, Derbent protection and safety of the army of Rumelia and Cyprus are also a lot of comments placed on the Nomad. Oguz length and scoop out the names of Anatolia and Rumelia (Avsar, Bayat, Kayi, quinine, Bayindir, Cepni, Karkin, Beydili, Yiva, Igdir, analytics, Dodurga, Yabirli, Akaevli, Karaevli) show that these settlements. Today the nomads to settled life is increasing.

Yörükler sheltered areas, yaylaklari, güzleleri and in an orderly fashion with particular ways of going live. Yoruks, are the property of yaylaklar tribes. Pets grasses where everyone freely. Animals, kislaklardaki and small gardens around their houses and property yaylaklardaki. The tents and garden 'homeland' is called. Stamps in order to prevent the contamination of the animals shot in 'immature' is mentioned as a. Side of the animal's ear çentilmesidir another sign. However nomads 'en' they say.

Yoruks old heritage, is shared according to customary law is understood. Sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses fed nomads, pasture, and overwintering wheat, barley, corn, and grow some vegetables. Foods based on milk products and meat. Clothing and household items dokurlar themselves. However, in a closed economy, not unity. Villages and towns that the market goes down, by selling products they buy their own needs. Yaylaklara sell their animals from the drover. Some clans, highland near the dairy peynircilere who sell milk.

Yörüks live in the same way during the reign of the Ottomans, and carried a load of develeriyle cities. Wheat, etc. on the big cities like Istanbul develeriyle nomads to bring consumer goods. All works of nomad women of the house, bring water, finding firewood, milking animals, which the men from the sheep and camels on creating engaged yaylima night. Goat feeding the nomads felt tent, leaving the black tent made of hair passed. Geçinceyse villages, mutafliga, çulculuga, nomads are many who continue to carpet. The dome-shaped tent, tree parts, (I), which oymaklara 'Evciler' is called. Yoruks class and layer separation is not clear. However, the nobles are said to be formerly known as descendants of nomads. Yoruks family, based on male domination. The main form of marriage, one by marriage. Generally, children who married and lives with their father, and therefore give rise to large families. Yörükler, daughter, daughter in such close akrabayla married.

Peel off the living quarters area of ??a pasture and called Oba. This term has gradually lost and replaced by the word neighborhood. One scoop or two people called oba. There were a kethuda tribes of the Ottoman period at the beginning, nomads say that the housekeeper. Sized communities that occurred a few tribes that are called and the beginning of the merger is Beylerbeyi gentlemen. The elders also called the Nomad Basbugu. A combination of several neck consists of the nation. During the Ottoman period, Boz had the nation and the Black Nation. Their ruler was called the nation by themselves.

Yörükler Sunni Muslims generally. Alevis are the ones. Pure and clear Yörükler speak Turkish. There is a rich folklorlari.

Earlier comments made in the spring migrations. All items are loaded camels, rugs thrown on them, small and large bells of camels as an ornament worn on the forehead. Dressed in new clothes at the beginning of the caravan, in the hands Kirmani, were located at a point of wool spinner. Currently, only "Sarikeçililer" remained a small company.

Throwing arms around young men on horseback, rode passed yaylak ways. Preparations were made before migration. Burrow and boy what a day göçülecegini heads of statesmen. Parts of the host, where the barracks and everyone yaylaklarda (lesho) would be according to the etiquette of the old Turkish.

Who Yörükler

Yörükler, horseback-nomadic lives according to Turkish culture than many other Turkish community, a relatively recently settled a long time, and maintaining one of the Turkish community.

This is reflected in his lifestyle, and their characters have become their main features are a number of virtues.

For example, nomadic shepherds, tolerant people. Understanding and change constantly involved in a completely different life styles of different people who face constantly. This situation makes people more tolerant, because they only way to live in peace with them through tolerance. To protect their way of life have found that it is possible to respect the lifestyle of others.

Yörükler helpful people. Things they need to market their high pastures off the market must still meet other Yoruks. This obligation to share the very best system and taught them the inning.

Diligent. Sustain their lives in the highlands, and the things they need to live a more comfortable they are obliged to produce. Therefore, every comment is actually a kind of obasi operates as an integrated factory. Cheese, butter, yogurt, do. Are obtained from sheep wool. With this wool rugs, carpets, tents, absorber, weavers pants, sweaters, gloves, socks, clothes spun like. Leather goods, post, sandals, handbags, make cheese tulugu. In short, every nomad obasi an independent economic unit.

Yörükler clean people. Once accommodations are always the beginning of the water. This is only one thing for themselves and not the supply of drinking water for animals. Cleaning is one of the most important reasons for this choice. Given the hygiene conditions of that time is the most healthy environments for at least a high mountain heads of the risk of spreading germs. Boiled and boiled hot water using a clean cloth tent that were delivered in the bride of a nomad - Given the health conditions of the past undeveloped - Is there really such a bad labor conditions, doing?

Also fond of the freedom of nomadic shepherds. Saw as a threat to freedoms of home-bark, no meyletmemisler farm-garden business ownership, the vast plateaus of Anatolia, the fountain-head of my wandering I have emphasized the fountain-head. The pressures to settle are placed for a long time, even though for a time direnmislerdir.Yörükler take the opportunity to have returned to their old lives. Dizededir summary of their efforts:

Ferman sultan, the mountains are ours.  Anatolia starting in the War of Independence against the enemy attempting to invade our country just joined a resistance movement, gave a very martyrs, but showed the most beautiful examples of Turkish patriotism.  Years ago, I listened to the story and wanted to convey to you;  Once upon a time there was obasi birYörük living in the great plateaus of the Toros Mountains, cool. This Oba cheerful, hard-working people lived. This icy mountain springs throughout the whole summer in the early people of oban mansions, emerald grassland plateaus otlatirlarmis these animals.

Grazing all day nomad women, her breasts full of milk, plus the number of healthy sheep, yogurt, cheese, butter in do. So beautiful highland air breathing, the feast of meat, milk, butter cheeks blood damlarmis these people are not missing. All healthy, energetic human beings.

Obadaki a nomad tent in one of these young men lived with his elderly mother. His father, yet he was younger than other young people who died in oban, such as the daring young man, a good çobanmis. Straddled a very good, the best pastures otlatirmis flock.  The men of oban inerlermis town once a week on Friday. Makes both the Friday prayers in the city, as well as their products from sheep, which they then sold the shop.  Yet somehow the boy in such a city tour of our beautiful daughter of the legendary region of the brain have been sitting in that city. That either Heart, Oban so many beautiful, charming young man when his daughter decided to marry this girl and this girl loved.

Talked to the girl next Friday, and the hearts of a young man somehow opened the gentleman's daughter, said he wants to marry him. For the young man, young man, his daughter liked Bey happily accept this request.

Is also allowed to accept the young man dropped into a bowl. Indeed, a huge tent in the brain where a Yörüge seen the girl? Young man, "who I am, gentlemen, who want his daughter. This will not work a job." Young girl came to an idea he thinks. Boy: "My father loves to eat and drink, and especially loves buttermilk. When you find a way to hunt my father, my father would coax ayraninizi begendirirseniz maybe." He said. We see the work. Nomadic shepherds, who can do better than a buttermilk? The boy's eyes shone. I was running, expect obasina went and began to hunt the brain.

Then one day near oban gentleman appeared on the back of his horse. Our young people falling prey lord tired of pursuing Obaya invited. Put up in front of a nice meal. A beautiful young man's elderly mother özemis yoghurt. As Mis-fat yoghurt ice-cold mountain spring water that is such a delicious buttermilk özemis out. Do not say buttermilk. If you can not get enough of a good drink made from yoghurt is well-endowed. Gentleman who ate a delicious meal on the nomad happened in this delicious buttermilk was very happy. Many young people do not fault the service, and his mother liked him. Separated by thanking the Oba.  It was always drank Obaya ayranlarini stop by later hunts. Of course, friendships also well advanced.  What makes young people who decide to marry a Turk? Of course, the biggest of the girl's family to send her daughter Dunure the order of Allah, the prophet's family wants to KAVL.

Our young people have done it, and go oban also talked with the brain, he wanted to lead him. Young people on a Friday elderly mother took him and the city oba gitmisler.Varmislar lord mansion brain. Welcomed the guests with a pleasant gentleman. Many have served refreshments.

Day opened word at an opportune moment, and saw nomad ruler's daughter from his father wanted a suitable language. Very surprised by this unusual situation before the Bey. Did not know what to say. Diyememis favorite charity for young people immediately. Asked her daughter what you think. Nomad said that young men wanted to marry her daughter, and love. Bey has not much to say anymore. His daughter has given young people. Set up a wedding. Yankilanmis sounds of drums and flutes at the beginning of the Taurus. Thus, the bride of the Nomadic was bey's daughter.  They say that still reverberates in the sounds that desolate mountain dügüncülerin slopes. Perhaps it is true. Once you have to go and listen to ...

One other story;

Almonds covered with forests while the ends of the town of Antalya Akseki the beginning of a crack in the hill flows a fountain of cold from the body of a sycamore tree. This pinarla tells a legend about the local people. According to legend, once the nomads lived here. One day in the hands of nomad girl egirip Kirman, grazing goats, white bearded man in the heat of July, a wand in the hands dry, old, man pirifani appear. Nomad daughter approached: 'For the sake of God, a sister to have water?' He says.  ACIR old girl with a man, his heart is inevitably: 'Eliminate the water, but there are two Copper bucket fresh milk. Al and internal bleeding internal 'he says, and therefore increase Bakraç. Drink milk, white bearded old man, and prays. 'God give gönlünün muradini' he puts up there hand wand. Branchy Wand is a huge plane tree. Body of the split plane, begin to flow in such a fountain of ice. Ever after, 'Er Pinari' God. Here drinking water, the smell of spring milk say our firm commitment.

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Excerpted from http://zizziro.tripod.com/id1.html

"Struggle between tribes and rulers, had continued, for centuries. At last, in 1856 Ottoman Empire established an army for settle the Turkmens, by force. But even today, there are some nomadic clans whom are living at the Toros Mountains, as they have lived from the beginning of their history.  There were two waves of people settlement to Cyprus. The first one was, from 1572 to the end of the XVI. century and the second, was from 1699 to 1745. The main paper about this settlement is a ferman of Sultan Selim the Second, which was written 20th September 1572. In this ferman it was ordered to the governors of Anatolia, Karamania, Zulkadiria and Rum provinces to select the people whom didn’t have enough land to make agriculture, wasn’t registered in a village population, who was known as a rebel (Turkmen population of those provinces was described with all of these criterias) and beside them ten percent of the industrial people; for sending Cyprus, by force. First of all, we have to say that all of those provinces were old Turkmen tribe governments (called Beylik), which was recently collaberated with the empire. It is known that, population of those provinces were Turkmens. For example, Zulkadiriya people were a mixture of Yureghir and Kynyk tribes and some independent clans, which was called as Zulkadiria Ulusu.  Karamania people were Bozdogan tribe, which was coming from main Oghouz branch, Üçoklar. The people of Rum province was a mixture of Beghdili, Bayat and other tribes which was coming from main branch Bozoklar and even a part of province was called Bozok, itself.  And Anatolia province was another Turkmen area which even Ibn-Batuta described as a “ Turkmen Yatagy” (Bed of Turkmens) on the Xll. Century.**

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Additional Resources for Yoruk Information: 

http://www.nomadplace.com/index.htm

http://www.nomadplace.com/yoruk/index.htm

http://www.allaboutturkey.com/nomad.htm

http://www.turkishculture.org/lifestyles/turkish-culture-portal/nomads/nomads-982.htm?type=1

http://www.anatoliandog.org/isik-001.htm

http://www.yorukanatolian.com/